The North Kenwood/Oakland Charter School Presents
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Critical years of Struggle A very fine site explaining
the Montgomery bus boycott, the Southern sit-ins, the freedom rides, the
Birmingham bombings, the Mississippi Freedom Summer and the Selma voting
Black Panther Party A very militant organization of young African Americans that had an important role during this period of our history.
Ruby Bridges: Walking Tall Ruby Bridges achieved the status of hero when she was just six years old and walked through crowds of hateful people (and a fair number who supported her, to) in integrate the William Frantz elementary school in New Orleans. You can listen to her tell about it at this site. See what some grade school kids said about Ruby Bridges and other Civil Rights heroes by clicking here.
Brown v. Board of Education The court case that ended the legal segregation of schools and started the ball rolling toward the end of much of the discrimination that had occurred because of people's race, sex, disability status, nationality, sexual orientation, etc. Thurgood Marshall was the lawyer who argued against segregation.
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) One of the major civil rights groups of the 1960's, SNCC started the sit-in's and went on to become one of the most militant advocates of "black power."
Desegregation of the Armed Forces In 1950, African Americans were officially given the right to serve with white Americans in the Army, Navy and Air Force. This did not just happen. It followed years of discussion and pressure from civil right groups. This fascinating site let you see the steps that led up to the important declaration.
Fanny Lou Hamer An uneducated sharecropper, Fanny Hamer got to the point where "I'm sick and tired of being sick and tired." She suffered torture and threats but nevertheless became a leader in the Southern voting rights movement.
The Integration of Central High in Little Rock Black children did not go to school with white children in the South until this event when soldiers were sent to make it happen. It took a lot of bravery by the black children who first when in. There is a good set of materials to help you think about this on-line. Why don't you take a look and if it seems interesting, show your teacher.
Integration of Southern Schools Aside from Little Rock, this excellent site has studies of Prince George's County, MD, Washington D.C., and Boston.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Here is a list of many sites detailing the contributions of the hero of heroes.
Malcolm X Malcolm X was a leader who grew up in the environment of the urban North. He rejected the idea of "turning the other cheek" to his enemies. You might also want to see a good site on Malcolm X created by high school students.
March on Washington This is the the high point of the Civil Rights movement, when 200,000 people came to Washington to demonstrate their solidarity with the cause of black people. It was here that Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his "I have a dream" speech. And, you may share your thoughts on the march.
Photographs of some of the most dramatic moments in the Southern struggles were taken by Charles Moore. Start them here and click the arrows to browse through the whole series.
A. Philip Randolph Asa Philip Randolph was the founder of the Sleeping Car Porters Union, the first Union primarily for African American Employees. Throughout his long life he was in the forefront of the struggle for equality, organizing a March on Washington for 1941 and the "I Have a Dream" March on Washington of 1963. This site is exceptionally good. It was developed in conjunction with a PBS special on Randolph.
Riots Riots occurred in major cities throughout the nation beginning in 1965 and lasting until the 1970's.
Jackie Robinson Jackie Robinson was a great baseball player, but his getting into the Major Leagues was important to everyone, not just sports fans. Throughout his life he was involved in supporting the cause of equality both on and off the field.
The Sit-ins Young men and women sitting at a lunch counter far away did more for us than we can begin to appreciate.
Timeline of the Civil Rights Movement You will like what you see: good summaries of important events, great pictures. But it leaves out a lot and stops at the year 1964. The Greensboro Library has a longer timeline you might like better to go with its excellent sit-in site.
The Tuskegee Airmen It was a breakthrough in African American history when a few young men were allowed to create a (segregated) unit in the Army Air Force.
The Voting Rights Act Signed by President Johnson in 1965, this great law was a tribute to the multitudes who had struggled and many who had died for it.
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